Circa on Jellicoe
26°08'36.66" S 28°02'10.51" E
A HISTORY OF CIRCA – ORIGINS AND CONCEPTS
The idea that was to evolve into the building named CIRCA originated in the late 1980’s. The Everard Read Gallery purchased from the Johannesburg City council a property adjoining the ERG at the corner of Jellicoe and Jan Smuts avenues. This is effectively the North west corner of one of SA’s largest retail precincts and a hugely visible property on a major artery carrying traffic to and from the CBD.
Over the course of the following 15 years, the property was utilized as an annex parking area for the gallery. During this time however, the idea began to grow in Mark Read that the gallery, already housed in a purpose-designed and much celebrated Post-Modern structure, could be extended into a new building developed on the corner site. As the nascent idea coalesced into the beginnings of a firm vision, Read set out to find the architect who could work on this project with him. It was an exciting time as Rosebank was earmarked for extraordinary development in the future, due to the Gautrain and new hotels appearing in the vicinity. The gallery had had an extended period of successful business and Read began to have ambitions of creating an iconic structure that would be both visually beautiful, and a world class exhibition centre.
It didn’t take long before Read met an architect whose work he had much admired – Pierre Swanepoel of Studiomas Architects. Swanepoel, immediately grasped the concept and within a short period developed a model that when presented to Mark and Christine Read was accepted as being the embryo of a structure destined to take its place as perhaps South Africa’s most arresting contemporary building.
During the course of the following two years and encompassing countless meetings, the model was polished into a bespoke plan with no simple-to-build generic design features. Rather than the oval that it at first appears to be, the building is in fact a pure ellipse – this allows interior walls that are ‘flat’ enough for the hanging of artworks. Modular walls that slide between the ground and first floor exhibition rooms allow for innovative and optimal utilization of the space. The top floor has a large open deck that affords visitors a panoramic view of a forested Johannesburg. After a great deal of debate it was decided that the concrete exterior of the building would be sheathed with subtle colour-differentiated anodized aluminum fins. These are set a few centimetres apart from each other so that at night interior light can emerge giving the building an almost translucent quality.
As Reads’ ambition grew, so obviously did the budget for this increasingly complex building. The contractor was chosen - Murray & Dickson Construction - and given the challenge of constructing a building that was both technically complex and aesthetically pure – a building that will be analyzed by the most exacting minds in the future. It’s the forgone conclusion of all parties concerned that Murray & Dickson have more than ably succeeded in their brief.
Along the journey that the building took from conceptual model to finally standing on the corner of Jellicoe and Jan Smuts, it became obvious to Mark Read that this project had grown to be much more than an Everard Read Gallery extension. This architectural gift to Johannesburg, was in fact a space where he could do a great deal more than he could in Everard Read, which although being one of the world’s most spacious privately-owned galleries was nevertheless limited through its design to ‘domestic’ sized works of art. Everard Read is a world renowned gallery with a reputation of handling important figurative works. The new building presented a once in a lifetime opportunity to venture into new territory without damaging in any way the integrity of Everard Read. With the new space, top contemporary artists could show vast work in its cavernous interior. Sculptures can be hoisted into the main viewing space via sliding doors and a sophisticated gantry. An outside ‘piazza’ area with an attractive ‘patisserie’ will allow for even larger monolithic works of art.
The opportunity had arisen to create more than a new contemporary art space for Johannesburg. The city lies at the heart of one of the world’s most fascinating countries. Here was a place to show amazing fossils that have been discovered – some not yet seen outside of laboratories. South Africa’s biodiversity can be celebrated with a series of exhibitions and lectures (Mark Read is Chairman of WWF (SA)) and visitors can be treated to installations dedicated to the emergence of new green technologies. It is envisioned that in the future certain treasures from South Africa’s museums, such as a piece of the moon that came back with Apollo 16, and also the famous Coelecanth specimen will be on show for a while. Lectures on a variety of subjects, music, theatre and dance events will also take place.
The top floor will host private functions in the splendidly decorated ‘Darwin Room’. Visitors can descend from the ‘Darwin Room’ in the centre of an organic, green wall of hanging plants that was developed adjunct to the building.
On the ground floor though glass walls, visitors will be able to view extraordinary objects of cultural curiosity at SPEKE – a collaborative venture between the Reads, Mark Valentine of AMATULI fame and a young Englishman – James Green. Speke named after John Speke who sought the source of the Nile, will show disparate and often quirky cultural objects from throughout the world.
So this strange new building isn’t just an exciting new art gallery but will host a variety of fascinating events. One could say it’s neither here nor there, but rather free to travel in space and time, not hindered by any preconceived template. What better name for it than CIRCA.
COMPLETING THE ART[S] EXPERIENCE - UNRAVELLING THE ARCHITECTURE OF CIRCA
Imagine a place in Johannesburg where you can enjoy music, film, talks, natural history exhibits, and art.... From early on, it was evident to the architect, Pierre Swanepoel of studioMAS, that CIRCA was to be ‘the’ venue to go to, a place to enjoy the best contemporary art on offer in Johannesburg; it would therefore need to function as a cultural gathering place. Forming an art precinct in the north western corner of Rosebank, its design focuses on a comprehensive way of looking at art and in so doing, creates a flexible, multipurpose building, that gives the visitor complete exposure to all types of art within the ambit of supporting amenities.
Circa, when viewed together with the existing Everard Read gallery is conceived as more than just a gallery and is therefore equally considerate about the public realm around it. It integrates itself with the city and offers more user variety, like a coffee shop and bookshop which are within the open ground floor and spill onto the sidewalk. It contains exhibition spaces for crafts and mixed media and large meeting places for public events or smaller private functions. The purpose is to create a building responsive to the art on show, offering something physical and real; something that alters perspectives of everyday life. The space between the galleries creates an opportunity to enjoy and exhibit large scale sculptures much like a sculpture garden or park or square, thereby making more of our shared public space; not just road surfaces for cars and hiding places for criminals.
An underlying purpose of the design is to encourage the gallery goer to rethink what is defined as “art” and an “art gallery”. No longer is it simply about a picture hung on a wall in a forgotten so called “white box” hall, in an out of sight building. The vision is for Circa to become a cherished city landmark in an impressive art precinct on the prominent intersection of Jellicoe and Jan Smuts. Located on the corner of this highly visible intersection, it marks a prominent public intervention within the existing urban fabric, offering 360° views. Art has evolved, and this gallery sets out to include these advances using various media, such as music, film, large scale sculpture and the architecture itself. The architecture is therefore a sculptural artwork, moulding itself around the art it contains.
Johannesburg beats to the pulse of many themes. To drive along its streets is to be continuously exposed to inventive craft. This tradition is born of natural media, under the care of a well trained hand. Artists engage with their patrons through informal side walk "galleries", where despite difficulty, sidewalks fight to sustain their function as public connectors. Moving forward on the vision to reclaim public space, the gallery establishes very open and fluid areas outside the building, which connect it prominently to the existing Everard Read Gallery. A ‘square’, big enough to house various large artworks, is created and provides an outdoor space to gather in.
One can say that Circa is a small building, with a big attitude. It is not just another commercial building, nor is it by any means, just another gallery. It is inspired by the new world economy where commercial gain and philanthropy are tempered by a concern for urban and natural environments. While its main aim is to conduct business, it uses its prominence to create an interest in art. It does so by forming a community landmark and reference point that emphasises the importance of art, in an unexpected urban environment. Therefore, it is integrated with functions in its surroundings such as the existing Everard Read Gallery, while still functioning autonomously.
Consider the Pine trees growing on the slopes of Table Mountain in Cape Town. Their bent trunks are not characteristic of their structure, but are reflective of the harsh, windy context in which they have adapted their form to survive. These Pine trees, appear very different from their relatives growing in Mpumalanga, principally, because they have had to adapt to a very different context. This metaphor illustrates illustrates the importance of context in denoting form to a building.
The Circa a site can be described as harsh and challenging to design in. It is located on a noisy and busy intersection, next to a filling station and within an undefined urban environment. The site is narrow and difficult to accommodate a standard building. It therefore creates a unique opportunity for some ingenuity and adaptive design. The architectural form can be appreciated for adapting to a narrow site, while creating a sculptural landmark form. The fins and scrims create visual linkages into and out of the building into the surroundings, while the main gallery remains private and removed from the hustle and bustle. Circa would not look the same were it to be built somewhere else. Partly in response to rational limits, a large part of the design of Circa stems from intuition, complimented by common sense. As its name suggests, it is not specific or defined, it is Circa.
The design is based on an elliptical plan. An ellipse, unlike an oval, does not represent an unsurprising constancy, but rather something of more natural origins; something organic. It speaks of that which of more comes from nature, through handmade and not machine made methods. In essence, this is the creative process from which art is crafted:
The Circa design philosophy reflects the abstract nature of art: it does not replicate realistically what is out there, but rather stimulates a thought from which it is to be understood. While the fins represent the randomness and variation of colour in nature, they do not reflect the internal functioning of the building. Thought and exploration are required in order for an appreciation of this is to be achieved.
For studioMAS, the architecture of Circa is one in which enclosure and spatial experience are paramount, where the lines of architecture become blurred. This has been achieved by using a number of long aluminium elements attached to the facade. These elements, or fins, are a means of partitioning the inside and outside space, while when read together, their repetitive placement along the facade create a monumental sculptural form. The fins, as singular elements, become apparent with the play of light and shadow along the edges of the building.
Evolving, with the time of day and seasons, the experience of the filtered space in the northern edges of Circa accentuates the experience of space in a completely different way; more than just a sculptural object, Circa’s architecture is about creating atmosphere. The sensory experience of space in Circa is demonstrated in the play of shadows, the reflection of sunlight off the fins and their glittering in the water of the sculpture pond. The harmony created by these elements evokes a sense of vibrant playful architecture, where movement and the process of experiencing space creates architecture that is fluid and evolutionary.
Poetry is interpreted in the façade of the gallery by creating a system of narrow vertical anodised aluminium fins that are equal neither in length, nor in colour. Nature and natural processes inspired the facade design. Consider the implied order and chaos typical of the protective fences of Zulu Kraals and the vertical elegance of reeds and grasses. These elements create both ‘enclosure’ as well as maintain views through them.
These concepts have served to inspire the facade of fins that serve as a screen, through which activity can be observed within the building from the street or where gallery visitors can experience glimpses of the city from within the gallery edges. This visual interface between user and context, changes along the perimeter by virtue of the elliptical façade. No two views from the building toward its surroundings are the same. The carefully developed process of colour selection for these panels was as follows:
The use of scrims in the facade as well as the external fire escape forms a major component of the architecture. The planted box within which the fire escape is located, creates an opportunity on which creepers can grow. It emphasises the importance of encouraging conditions for nature to develop in harmony with manmade things. Greening of this urban building in other parts of the design is also evident, albeit in a very subtle manner. The dialog between handmade product (the facade) and natural growth (the green scrim) aims to evoke an appreciation of the poetic and functional importance of scrims in our cities, a design feature that studioMAS actively promote.
Circa consist of three floors. The ground floor is named Speke and consists of about 106m2 of exhibition space for crafts curiosities. On crossing the public threshold, users are drawn in via a perimeter ramp that connects ground and first floor exhibition spaces and promotes access to the mobility impaired. Its double volume first floor, consist of 177.76m2 multi-purpose exhibition space, with 7 movable display screens which can be dropped through the floor into the ground level below, realising the full extent of the multipurpose floor.
The top floor consists of the Darwin Room, an 85m2 private lounge that can be rented out for functions and that spills out onto a 20m2 deck, overlooking the impressive North Western Johannesburg views . The gallery has two small kitchens for catering as well as AV technology for projection and public address.
Security is tackled by a bold site intervention. Circa promotes the seemingly forgotten concept of designing an inviting building with “good manners”; one that does not resort to perimeter fencing or a 3m high wall. By that we mean that the building utilises level differences, overlooking features and robust materials, to create secure internal environments; breaking down barriers between the public and art. Boundaries create psychological barriers between people more than they create physical protection. Circa intends to break these barriers, bringing art to the public in everyday life.
If it is true that buildings are poetic yet rooted in logic and crafted though the creative process, then Circa not only responds to the poetic composition of a building within a vibrant urban context, but also to the logic of the needs of the art it houses and of its public. Circa is a building that is built upon a desire to be part of this city, its art and its people; it is a fluid point in time, that will morph and evolve as South Africa, and its art does.
[CIRCA Architectural Write Up by studioMAS]
Award for Excellence Citation
The Circa Sculpture on Jellicoe is an extension of the Everard Read Art Gallery, located on a prominent intersection in Johannesburg. Being mainly a sculpture gallery, Circa presents itself as an intervention that challenges traditional concepts of exhibiting art and experiencing sculpture art. The architecture is itself sculptural, with its metallic skin moulding itself around its concrete floors and partitioning walls while rooting the building into its urban surroundings.
Circa's main components are in the detailing of its facade cladding, anodised aluminium fins and green scrims that create visual thresholds into and out of the building. The inspiration for this came from nature, with its paradox of implied order and disorder. Evolving with the time of day and seasons, the experience of filtered light in the northern edges of Circa accentuates the sensory discovery of space.
Circa on Jellicoe has three floors: its ground floor is exhibition space for crafts, with the first floor as a multi-purpose exhibition space, with imaging movable display screens that can be dropped through the floor onto the ground level below to expose the full extent of the multi-purpose first floor. The top floor is a private lounge that spills out onto a roof deck, overlooking Johannesburg's Westside urban forest. This sequential layering of floor levels is held together by an enveloping half-spiral ramp that spills onto the first floor.
Circa on Jellicoe is an urban sculpture that redefines the definition of public space and public building in Johannesburg as it broadens the conventional boundaries of 'gallery' and gathering space. At ground floor and upon arrival the building partially frames a public piazza with an oval enclosed-unenclosed ramp space that surrounds the exhibition halls. It is iconic in form, function and location and as a public sculpture building, it stands proud off the intersection while maintaining a strong relationship with its immediate urban context.
All truncated references not fully cited below are those of Joanna Walker's original text and cited in full in the 'Bibliography' entry of the Lexicon.
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